When the Sun, the Moon, and the Earth are aligned in a straight line or an almost straight configuration, such that the Moon comes between the Sun and Earth blocking the rays of Sun from directly reaching the Earth, we witness a solar eclipse. Based on the alignment, there are three kinds of solar eclipses — total, partial, and annular — along with the addition of a rare hybrid of an annular and a total solar eclipse.

If the Moon remains in a perfectly circular orbit, a little closer to the Earth, and in the same orbital plane, there would be total solar eclipse every new moon. However, since the Moon's orbit is tilted at more than 5 degrees to the Earth's orbit around the Sun, its shadow usually misses Earth. A solar eclipse can only occur when the Moon is close enough to the ecliptic plane during a new moon. Special conditions must occur for the two events to coincide because the Moon's orbit crosses the eclipse at its orbital nodes twice every draconic month while a new moon occurs one every synodic month. Solar (and lunar) eclipses therefore happen only during eclipse seasons resulting in at least two, and up to five, solar eclipses each year; no more than two of these can be total eclipses.

The solar eclipse on 21st June, 2020 was an annular eclipse where the Moon was so far from Earth that its relative size failed to cover the Sun completely and left the outer rims visible, thus creating a ring of fire in the sky. This annual solar eclipse started at 9:15 AM and was visible until 3:04 PM. The maximum eclipse took place at 12:10 PM. The eclipse was visible in most parts of Asia, Africa, the Pacific, the Indian Ocean, parts of Europe and Australia